In conversation with the mute Object

I have been working with rocks for a number of years now and recently started dedicating more time to the project. My investigation into understanding my fascination with these mute and ineffable objects is still very broad, yet beginning to focus on expression questions of identity, status and place through the rock, gem and stone material choices.

So what is the difference between a rock and a stone?

Rock is raw material, Stone usually implies human shaping or human use. It can also be used to describe naturally produced fragments of rock larger than a cobble.

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), lists as the first definition for rock  “A large rugged mass of hard mineral material or stone.” Its first use comes from Old English, dated at 950-1100. The OED defines stone as “A piece of rock or hard mineral substance of a small or moderate size,” first used in 825.

The word stonerock, defined as “A pointed or projecting rock, a peak, a crag; a detached mass of rock, a boulder or large stone,” predates either of the singular words stone or rock. Stonerock, or stanrocces, as it was spelled, dates from the Early Old English, used from 600 to 950.

In January this 2018 I was invited as a visiting artist to Bowling Green State University and the College for Creative Studies ( BGSU and CCS) followed by a week at the University of Texas Arlington ( UTA). There I did workshops with the students and presented lectures on the human relationship to rocks and stone and its use in different art practices. Below are some examples from the presentations given to the students. The specific focus of these presentations was of the raw rock material not carved stone sculpture or utilitarian object, which is a whole topic in itself.

 

At BGSU, the first place I visited I was greeted in an open area between buildings by this wonderful contemporary menhir, that serves the students as a graffiti platform.

At BGSU and CCS I was able to start working on some tests, to combine glass and rocks. The explorations below were done in the course of 5 days. Most rocks I gathered from outside, with a particular interest in the quarried stones. The glass was free formed, mold blown into simple wood and drywall molds as well as hot blow molds were used.

The students received some of the reading materials I had used for my research. Each of them speaks to different human relationships with rock materials.

Details on the rare earth frontier by Elizabeth Knafo ( Cabinet Magazine, Issue 63 The Desert Spring 2017 ), is of particular interest to the glass students because of our use of rare earths for the creation of glass colors. The article highlights the economy of poverty and how the mining industry and capitalism reinforces the exploitation of the land which as well is carried on the backs of the locals.

Colors / Sienna by Tif Sigfrids ( Cabinet Magazine, Issue 63 The Desert Spring 2017 ), another article from the same Magazine and the same Issue, that talks about the significance of the color Sienna, an earth pigment and its history, going back to the first human made art in cave paintings, where ground up rock as the paint is applied to rock, the cave surface. It portrays rock as the original art material.

In the Interview of Tony Cragg by Jon Wood is a section titled “ Material”, where Tony Cragg talks about “appropriate materials” in reference to how well their characteristics lend themselves to various meanings we want them to carry forth.

Menhire in Deutschland, by Johannes Groht, 2013, is a book, which I found in the Natural History Museum in Halle, Germany. Its a collection of all the in Germany existing Menhirs or Standing Stones, their location, Mythology, appearance in History, local significance and appearance.

Rock and Hawk: A Selection of Shorter Poems by Robinson Jeffers Hardcover, 1987. Each poem deals to a degree with rocks, geology and stones juxtaposed by moving creatures and weather. The rock is used a signifier for stability, place and time but also for monstrosity and indifference.

At UTA I focused on exploring the compatibility of a variety of gems. I was mostly making solid inclusions, although a number of them inflated. To my surprise almost all of them didn’t break in the annealing. While looking at them under the polariscope I noticed the the quartz in particular didn’t show signs of stress. I know that scientifically glass and quartz are supposed to not be compatible, however the amount of tension between them, even for hollow or thin walled objects I not significant enough to cause breakage.

Finally this fall I have been as a visiting artist at the University of Hawaii, Manoa for the fall Semester. As part of my residency here I was asked to have a show at the University Commons Gallery. The show took place two weeks after I arrived and I consider it very much a work in progress show, as it showed pieces I had created within those two weeks. It was a joint exhibition with Matthew Szosz, titled “half place”

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Ten Mount Rainiers

 Digital Print, online sourced photographs

Predominant views on a subject, changes and defines the way we remember and perceive an object, person or situation. Living in Seattle I see it from its popular perspective.  I averaged Mount Rainier, as seen through the eyes of different people, from different locations, finding its median overall form to generate the average Mount Rainier. 

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Sixteen highest Peaks

Digital Print, online sourced photographs

Arranged by height the sixteen highest peaks on Earth generate a chaos of undistinguishable features, only allowing the peaks themselves to be recognized against each other. Mount Everest as the highest peak (if measured from sea level) leads the group. However, the highest peak on earth is Mount Chimborazo (if measured from Earths center), Mauna Kea however is the tallest if measured from the base to summit. Taking human reach as a standard for measurement has shaped everything we make and how we judge our environment.

Naturalization-Stone to Rock

Blown glass, cut, found rock 

The difference between a rock and a stone is, that a stone is touched and shaped by human hands and a rock is naturally formed, often the size also plays a role in when we call something a rock or a stone. In this case I reimagined the part of the stone that was cut away to help it turn back into a rock, as an act of naturalization. I am currently in the process to become a US citizen, to be “naturalized”. The piece relates to my present status as a legal alien, a not full member of a community.  

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Making Ends Meet

blown glass, cut, found rock
The two furthest apart ends of a rock were pushed into the hot glass in an effort to create a space where they can come together and meet.

Diorama of impossible marriages 

Hot sculpted glass, ground, polished, with rock inclusions:  Amethyst, clear Quartz, Garnet, Quartz geode, 

glass shrinks during its cooling process. In order for it not to crack it needs to cool and shrink uniformly. Introducing foreign bodies into the liquid glass is usually considered impossible, as the glass will crack. I have been experimenting with different rocks and gems to find the ones that are similar enough to what the glass needs to do during the cooling to allow for the two to be combined. 

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Quartz crystal in clear glass inclusion. 5” diameter.

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Aggregate 

Hot sculpted glass, ground, polished, dichroic glass, Marble, Scoria, Slate

This arrangement of objects, made-and found, continues my exploration of material qualities seen as their differences and similarities as they have been explored in history through spiritual practices. 

In the coming year I will continue working with these materials and objects. In part for an exhibition at CoCA in Seattle in January and in part for an exhibition at the Goethe Institute’s Popup Gallery in Seattle in August 2019 during the Seattle Art Fair.

I will post updates about my thoughts, research and material explorations here.

Expanding Air

Expanding Air- working title

Expanding Air was born out of the test phase for the chrysalis project. I was lucky to be able to have Brian Corr and D.H. McNabb blow a couple of large forms for me at Pilchuck in 2016. 

working in the hot shop

working in the hot shop

carrying the pieces into the forrest

carrying the pieces into the forrest

We brought the glass pieces into the forrest to a place I had found and wanted to use for the Images.

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I hope that I will have the chance to continue this series with more glass pieces and different locations.

Mold less Pâte de Verre

In the Spring of 2014, while in residence at the Bullseye Bay Area Research Center I stumbled into what would occupy my investigative interest for the next years to come.
Working on a large wall piece titled “Rorschach” I was mixing up batches of black glass enamel to create the inkblot patterns of the piece. In spilling a jar of the enamel paint I wiped it up with a paper towel and remembered the organic burn out technique used in ceramics where organic material are dipped into slip casting clay. The clay soaked materials turn in the firing into solid clay objects as the original material burns away. I put the enamel soaked paper towel in the kiln and fired it. Which turned into the first moldless pate de verre object I created. With little intension, other than a curiosity of what would happen I had no idea what the moment of spilling enamel would start off.

working on Rorschach

working on Rorschach

The fired paper towel

The fired paper towel

Now over three years later, I have arrived at a stage where things have become quite a bit more complex. In the past years I have developed a variety of types of glass pastes that have specialized characteristics to fulfill specific requirements. I created a glass paste with a consistency of whipped cream that can easily be spread onto a surface and has the ability to stay in place and not run off.

The white appearing forms is the clear paste applied to cardboard forms, before they are coated with a layer of color and fired

The white appearing forms is the clear paste applied to cardboard forms, before they are coated with a layer of color and fired

The finished and fired forms

The finished and fired forms

Out of this spreadable paste, I was also able to make sheets of paste, which cut into shapes I am able to assemble into objects. As I started working on pieces created out of components a gluing paste was an important product to develop, with a worklife long enough to complete the joining process, that would dry into a hard, non-flexible material to reduce stress on the joints of the pieces while being handled before firing.

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I have also developed a paste that behaves like clay. It is just as moldable as clay and can be rolled out into sheets, cut with cookie cutters, pushed through an extruder and hand molded into the desired object.

The moldable paste

The moldable paste

The same past's extruded using a custom milled die.

The same past's extruded using a custom milled die.

I had worked through trial and error for two years in my studio, pushing my way through a number of challenges that had to be solved. How to support the pieces during the firing, What binders will burn out stain free, how to construct the supporting structures onto which the pastes are applied, how to solve drying shrink and firing shrink…
Two years earlier, when I applied for the Technology Advancing Glass Art Grant in the summer of 2014 I had only started working on this method and had not much more than a vague idea of what might be possible. Seeing the potential but also the amount of resources it would take to become serious about developing this process I submitted my application to the TAG Grant. Without the commitment I had entered into through receiving the TAG Grant I would have abandoned the project at some point. It has been a very difficult process.
In the summer of 2016 I started the Specialty Glass Residency at the Corning Inc. research Facility in Sullivan Park. Together with Dr. Patrick Teppesch we refined pastes and created new ones. This  half year in 2016 was the most exciting time, because I wasn’t alone in a less than ideal studio situation, without tools and materials, but connected to a facility where any chemical is available, measuring techniques and charting was a given part of the process. It was an environment set up to do just what I needed.

A lot of my time was taken up by creating pastes. What I had applied to the TAG Grant with was the need of rapid prototyping for this project.
Removing the plaster silica mold from creating pate de verre, I had to come up with other materials onto which the glass paste could be applied. The first paste I developed was the spreadable paste. Cardboard was an easily moldable material out of which almost anything can be constructed. In the beginning I would cut the cardboard models by hand, spending days to cut, crease and fold up three-dimensional geometric forms onto which I could brush the glass paste.

Manual cardboard construction and creation process

Manual cardboard construction and creation process

The finished piece, The Boat-2014

The finished piece, The Boat-2014

This being highly inefficient and time consuming I started creating the cardboard forms in the 3d modeling program Rhino and laser cutting the cardboard. Rhino can turn any three dimensional structure into a flat layout, which can be imported into the laser cutter operating program. In either program you can also assign details of your layout to be on the cut layer and the etch layer. The etch layer will create a partial cut into the material, which can be used as crease lines. Moving the creative process of the cardboard into the digital realm simplified the labor of the making process.

Laser cut cardboard forms ready for assembly

Laser cut cardboard forms ready for assembly

3d scan of Kieran, with reduced polygon mesh parts for cutting and assembly

3d scan of Kieran, with reduced polygon mesh parts for cutting and assembly

used and removed cardboard forms, ready to be reused

used and removed cardboard forms, ready to be reused

cut and partially assembled head

cut and partially assembled head

The incredible advantage of 3d modeling is that relative speed in which anything can be created. No actual materials and resources are being used to figure out a form and changing your mind about what you make doesn’t mean that you have to throw away lots of materials but you just change your model. Making decisions before they become physical reality is an incredibly helpful feature. Unfortunately the learning curve for these programs and machines is long and slow and the speed at which they programs get upgraded makes it hard to follow along. Also the availability to the general public of such technologies is still lacking. I was fortunate enough to be able to use the maker space of the Human Centered Design and Engineering Program at the University of Washington, both as a Graduate student and as an alumni.
With the development of the clay-like paste I needed to make my own tools to be able to extrude the paste into shapes. I created dies for a simple extruder through which the pastes are pushed. I have been using an OtherMill, which is a small desktop milling machine. The drawback of this machine is the speed at which it can cut. Milling my own tools required me to learn an additional number of programs.

The OtherMill and program showing the progress on the milling time

The OtherMill and program showing the progress on the milling time

Some dies

Some dies

The die modeled in Rhino.

The die modeled in Rhino.

A die and extruded paste

A die and extruded paste

In the Maker Space at the University of Washington I was also introduced to Virtual Reality modeling. It is the newest bit of technology and still in progress of becoming a great tool. Virtual Reality modeling or VR modeling can be learned in an extremely short period of time and the modeling happens in a three-dimensional space, in which you as the maker are part of.

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Wearing a large headset, with glasses and headphones, your hands holding remote controls that feature buttons you become part of the computer generated space. Two cameras track your motion and through your headset you see a virtual rendering of your hands. The controls let you draw and paint in the virtual space and through your headset you can see everything appear in front of you. Being able to sculpt in the same space instead inside a flat screen in front of you helps you create complex objects that are proportioned in relation the real space.

Some of the objects I modeled in VR

Some of the objects I modeled in VR

I had often found it hard to model on the computer inside a grid, without any physical reference, which is usually the case when sculpting in the real world. Anything you model in VR can be plugged into other existing programs, turned into templates for laser cutting or 3d printing. In the future I hope this program will continue to become more refined with more features as it opens up new way of sculpting forms quickly, without the restraint of gravity and materiality before producing them in the real world.

The 3d model imported into Slicer to prepare for laser cutting

The 3d model imported into Slicer to prepare for laser cutting

Laser cut parts

Laser cut parts

The two parts of the TAG Grant project, the development of the pastes and the application of rapid prototyping needed to happen in tandem to be able to create new forms. In the future I hope to refine this technique. There are still a lot of problems to be solved and questions to be answered before it is an easily applicable process. 

At this point the past’s I have created can be thrown on the potters wheel, just like clay. It can be hand molded like clay, slipcase like clay into cardboard or foam forms. It can be brushed onto forms or cast into sheets, which can be cut with scissors or flexible molded and bend by hand before firing.
Some paste in action below:

Chorus of One ( Chrysalis, NooN )

Chrysalis- Work in Progress, Corning Inc. Research residency

In the summer of 2016 I started the Specialty Glass Residency in upstate New York. The Specialty Glass Residency is a joint program of The Corning Museum of Glass and Corning Incorporated that supports artists in exploring the use of specialty glass materials to inform their body of work.

One of the materials I was introduced to at Corning was a glass ceramic of the Rhino glass product family developed by Corning Inc. The Rhino glass ceramics consist of different compositions, each formulated for different purposed such as bullet proof vest shields, ceramic teeth filling, countertops and pressed table ware. The basic characteristics of the glass ceramic is its working properties. You batch the raw materials and melt them in a furnace from where you can extract it for your usage. It works best if you can shape a product in one heat. If the glass ceramic ( clear when initially heated) cools below a certain temperature range, is heated up again, via a flame or oven, it will start forming crystals in the heat. These crystals are visible at the beginning as small seed crystals that will continue transforming the glass into a ceramic as you work. 

Seed crystals visible in a blown form. These seed crystals formed by gathering multiple times glass over the previously cooled start.

Seed crystals visible in a blown form. These seed crystals formed by gathering multiple times glass over the previously cooled start.

One blown form before reheating it and after it has been transformed into the ceramic after heating it.

One blown form before reheating it and after it has been transformed into the ceramic after heating it.

The challenges with this material is, that you can not work it easily in the hot shop and blow it into forms, because as you need to constantly reheat the material to keep it soft and workable and to not make it crack as it can cool too fast. Another problem you face is that glass heats unevenly. Where it is hotter it transforms fast. This leads to having part of your form being glass and the other ceramic. Even though both materials are originating from the same source, the properties are so different that one incompatible with the other. That leads to the piece breaking, unless you either transform it fully or not transform it at all. Typically this material is used for press molding or sheet forming. To take this glass into the hot shop was very challenging. Glass is a soft skin, that can be inflated by gently blowing air into it through the blow pipe. Once the glass on your pipe turns into ceramic, it become rock hard and can't be inflated.

When working with it I was captured by the crystal formation in the clear material. The slow whitening and changing of a material body into a different one was captivating. 

Streaks and textures as well as a milky translucent color are the visual striking properties of Rhino when blown.

Streaks and textures as well as a milky translucent color are the visual striking properties of Rhino when blown.

I learned that Rhino glass was extremely shock resistant and strong. Looking at the first bubbles we blew, I was reminded of a chrysalis and thinking about the possibility of this material to be able to support my weight I wanted to make a form that was large enough for me to get inside of.

So the team of the Corning Museum of Glass and I set out to blow a form, large enough for me to be in.

In the hot shop at the Museum

In the hot shop at the Museum

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After some trying we figured out the process pretty well. Watch a short video Corning produced during the initial phase here:

The still glassy bubbles, with seed crystals for the ceramic transformation embedded, had to be placed back into a kiln to bring them back up to the temperature they needed to turn into the ceramic. In order to do that they needed to be supported from the inside as they would otherwise collapse. When we started the project we didnt know about the issue of having to support them during the firing. Corning ordered loose fiber frax to stuff the bubble with for us.... Unfortunately the material arrive first months later at the end of the residency.
Unsure if we could do the second, required step of this process, we decided to shift production course as the months went by without the material arriving.

In the second phase we tested different modes to generate a chrysalis form. ranging from making it from round, fitting sections, to constructing it out of parts.

Tests for construction from Parts and shards

Tests for construction from Parts and shards

Jeff Mack with a blown form for round sections. Dr. Jane Cook, Chief Scientist at the Museum in the background

Jeff Mack with a blown form for round sections. Dr. Jane Cook, Chief Scientist at the Museum in the background

A full scale chrysalis model in my studio, to better understand the look and workings of it.

A full scale chrysalis model in my studio, to better understand the look and workings of it.

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Drawings of various Chrysalis forms for reference.

Drawings of various Chrysalis forms for reference.

The idea was to cut the top and bottom off and either cut them in half lengthwise or slump them into flat sheets. Which would get formed in the kiln over a cell core slump mold.

The idea was to cut the top and bottom off and either cut them in half lengthwise or slump them into flat sheets. Which would get formed in the kiln over a cell core slump mold.

Model molds carved from Cellcore, Diesel engine filter supplied by Corning Inc.

Model molds carved from Cellcore, Diesel engine filter supplied by Corning Inc.

half of a Cellcore mold in the kiln for a slump test simulating the larger bottle shaped forms blown at the. Corning Museum of Glass.

half of a Cellcore mold in the kiln for a slump test simulating the larger bottle shaped forms blown at the. Corning Museum of Glass.

While working with the glass ceramic we didn’t know if we would be able to process large pieces of Rhino glass, as it transitions so rapidly between the soft state of glass and the crystalline state of ceramic. To create the crystalline state the glass had to be heated so much that it would slump, so it became necessary to think of ways to support the large forms in the ceram-firing so they wouldn’t collapse while transitioning. We ordered lose fiberglass stuffing but it didn’t arrive in time for the residency to be over. On the last few days we discovered that we could have made large blown forms and ceram them successfully, but midway through we changed course after a few failed attempts of ceraming unsupported blown vessel forms.
Image left: Rhino Glass bubble before ceram firing
Image Second Left: The same large Bubble after cream-firing, supported with lose fiber fill
Image Second Right: Back side of the large bubble with visible stuffing
Image Right: collapsed cream-fired large bottle shaped form, fired without support

In the end we settled on blowing small, one gather lollipop shapes, that can be combined into a large surface, like scales.

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The pace of the residency is so fast, with decisions having to be made months in advance. This added a layer of difficulty in the creative process. Because of that, only at the termination of the residency I had time to really consider the raw material I had made during the residency.

In the beginning of 2017 I had moved away from making a chrysalis that resembled that of an animal

I went back and looked at the research material I had gathered in the area. The Chrysalis had its origin in a fossile I discovered when visiting the Paleontological research Institute outside Ithaca NY. The Eurypterid is the NY state fossil, because of its abundance in the local shale bedrock. It had served me as a reference throughout the process and received some renewed attention in addition to the corsets I had seen at the Wesleyan Chapel Women’s Rights National historical Park Museum in Seneca Falls, where the first Women’s rights convention was held in 1848. There is a stunning resemblance between the exoskeleton and the corsets which led to the new phase of the project.
 

Eurypterid panel from the Paleontological Research Institute, Ithaca

Eurypterid panel from the Paleontological Research Institute, Ithaca

Corset at the Wesleyan Chapel Women’s Rights National historical Park Museum in Seneca Falls

Corset at the Wesleyan Chapel Women’s Rights National historical Park Museum in Seneca Falls

Thinking of creating a reference between a worn object and a geological feature, a skin and garment that relates to the earth and solid material I used the facets of a found rock to create the cloak from.

The rock and its models.

The rock and its models.

The facets of the found rock served as the layout for each part of the chrysalis cloak.

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Drawings of each face of the rock. Studies and interpretations.

Drawings of each face of the rock. Studies and interpretations.

The next step, after isolating each facet of the rock, was to figure out what the layout should look like. I began with creating the collar and then add the body of the cloak pieces, while experimenting with symmetrical and asymmetrical layouts.

In the end I settled for one of the symmetrical layout, one because I would have to make a custom piece for each glass part on an asymmetrical layout and I only had a very limited amount of raw material with no possibility to get any more and secondly the look of it referred more to exoskeletons and armor.

I then began to create a styrofoam dummy as well as cutting all the cloak parts. At this point I had boxes full of ceramed, cut in half lollipop Rhino pieces. I laid out the number of pieces I needed of each facet and cut with a diamond saw each part out of the lollipop shapes. Each part then got beveled and drilled for stitching it together.

The cloak contains over 170 individual Rhino glass part. The unique properties of the Rhino glass material make it extremely shatter and impact resistant, which is why it can be worn and used at all. The scales of the cloak when moved emit an unique sound ranging from bells to rattle.

After the cloak was done my collaboration with Alethea Alexander and Alexandra Bradshaw Jerby began. They are both professional dancers. Alethea is currently Assistant Professor at the University of Washington School of Dance and Alexandra is a Predoctoral Lecturer and M.F.A in Dance Candidate at the University of Washington.

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Alexandras website:

 

Alethea website:

 

Through their embodiment the object first began to develop a voice and character Together we practiced and selected movements to create a composition that was both improvisation and choreographed movement. We recorded the performance in addition to live performances that are held in connection with the Bellevue Arts Museum Biennial at the Bellevue Arts Museum. Performances are scheduled for every first Friday Artwalk for the duration of the exhibition.
You can find more information here:

I am proud and honored to have received the JOHN & JOYCE PRICE AWARD OF EXCELLENCE . The price consists of a solo exhibition at BAM ( in 2020) and a $5,000 cash prize. 

Here is a video of the full performance which ranges from 15-20 minutes.

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Book of Breath

The Book of Breath - work in progress

In 2014 I created a small piece, consisting of a simple strip of mirror, onto which I wrote the words- Next to Nothing- with Rain X. Rain X is used on windshields to make the rain run off easier.As an ink it is invisible on the glass, but will inhibit the glass to fog over when breathing onto it. 

In the summer of 2016 I started the Specialty Glass Residency in upstate New York. The Specialty Glass Residency is a joint program of The Corning Museum of Glass and Corning Incorporated that supports artists in exploring the use of specialty glass materials to inform their body of work.
In connection with the Coatings Lab. at Corning Inc.  I was able to expand the initial test into a book project. With the help of the incredible knowledgeable and talented Senior Research Scientist Wageesha Senaratne and Dr. Prantik Mazumder we figured out what coatings to use on the glass, how to avoid the coating processes to interfere with each other and how to use the thinnest glass possible for the pages of the book.

First piece from 2014, Next to Nothing.

First piece from 2014, Next to Nothing.

Learning about the difference between hydrophillic and hydrophobic with Dr. Prantik Mazumder at Corning Inc.

Learning about the difference between hydrophillic and hydrophobic with Dr. Prantik Mazumder at Corning Inc.

The book making process at Corning was a multiple step process, after we had decided on layout, fond type, coating method and glass type. 
We ended up using a 0.4mm thick Gorilla Glass. This is the type of glass we have in our mobile devices. 
The glass had in the first step to be cut in the laser cutting lab. After cleaning we inkjet printed the text on the glass pages in Corning's printing lab. The black lettering was used as a resist stencil which we later removed after we had applied the first set of coatings. 

In the laser cutting and printing lab with Matthew Fenton and Michael Gaj. Looking at the process of the book project.

In the laser cutting and printing lab with Matthew Fenton and Michael Gaj. Looking at the process of the book project.

After the printing was done, the pages were sent off to the coatings lab, where they received the first set of coatings. For this step the glass had to be ultra clean and the process is done in clean room environments to ensure that the coatings cover the glass without any faults.
After that we took over the last step of coatings and the removal of the inkjet print.

In the lab with Wageesha Senaratne coating pages. The solid black block at the edge of the page to the right is where the book binding will be. The printed ink resist ensures proper adherence for the binding, as the coatings we used are designs to prevent smudges. That would interfere with any glues used for the binding later on.

In the lab with Wageesha Senaratne coating pages. The solid black block at the edge of the page to the right is where the book binding will be. The printed ink resist ensures proper adherence for the binding, as the coatings we used are designs to prevent smudges. That would interfere with any glues used for the binding later on.

After the pages were coated we dipped them in a liquid that would lift off the ink from the page. A little help with a razor blade enabled us to remove it fully.

Scraping off the ink.

Scraping off the ink.

testing the coating quality in the finished pages.

Breath reveals the writing on the now completely clear page.

Breath reveals the writing on the now completely clear page.

the text can also be filled with water and sits proud in the writing.

the text can also be filled with water and sits proud in the writing.

The next step now is to bind the book and make the case it will be in. Stay tuned.

This is the full book activated, page by page. I like particularly how the vanishing words transform the language and change the meaning of the sentences.

Here is each page of the book in print.